This book introduces the English-speaking world to the important new Finnish interpretation of Martin Luther's theology. Initiated by Tuomo Mannermaa of Helsinki University, the Finnish breakthrough centers on Luther's doctrine of justification by faith alone. In opposition to the traditional forensic understanding of justification, Mannermaa argues that for Luther "Christ is really present in faith itself." Mannermaa's interpretation of Luther's view of justification is thus more ontological and mystical than ethical and juridical. His work, here supported by four other Finnish colleagues and further clarified by four American theologians, challenges a century of scholarly opinion concerning a foundational doctrine of Protestant theology.