The second edition of The Crusades, for long standard work on the subject, has been extensively rewritten to take account of the latest research and new interpretations. Crusading was a central theme in the early medieval European history, and the book covers all the expeditoins which took place between the First Crusade in 1096 and the final retreat from Palestine in 1291. Certain aspects are examined in detail; the Crusading indulgence; the effect the Crusades had on the history of the participating states; the entanglement of the Crusades in European politics - for example in the conflicts between Pope and Emperor, and between the Kings of France and England; its role in moulding relations between Byzantium and Europe; and its misuse for an expansionist Italian and Catalan trade policy. In the line with recent research, particular emphasis has been placed on the internal history of the Crusader states. This comprehensive account will be of value to undergraduates and general readers alike; it is also an excellent introduction to the subject for those who intend to move on to more detailed studies.