This book is written by a theologian, or to be more precise, by a theologian who is concerned professionally with religion and with pastoral psychology. The coming to terms with developments in the field of psycho-analysis has a twofold significance for the theologian. As a pastor I am often faced with the question of what actual view to take of psycho-analysis, and sometimes also how to regard the psycho-analyst as a therapist. (I am thinking for example of the problem of passing on a member of my congregation to a psychiatrist.) Among theologians there is often a kind of fear, as well as lack of knowledge; the theologian gets 'cold feet'. Investigation could probably eliminate both ignorance and fear. On the other hand, through its theories psycho-analysis has become an important factor in our modern civilization, and one that theology must not ignore. Without analysis much modern 'unbelief' remains incomprehensible. Under this aspect too it is important for theology to be well informed about developments in psycho-analysis, and also to learn to istinguish more clearly than is generally the case between analysis as a therapeutic method (which rests on an objective and empirical investigation of the patient) and the theories which are and have been upheld by analysis; the latter reveal themselves as more evanescent than is oftern assumed.