It is a commonplace today that Paul was a Jew of the Hellenistic Diaspora, but how does that observation help us to understand his thinking, his self-identification, and his practice? Ronald Charles applies the insights of contemporary diaspora studies to address much-debated questions about Paul's identity as a diaspora Jew, his complicated relationship with a highly symbolized "homeland," the motives of his daily work, and the ambivalence of his rhetoric. Charles argues for understanding a number of important aspects of Paul's identity and work, including the ways his interactions with others were conditioned, by his diaspora space, his self-understanding, and his experience "among the nations." Diaspora space is a key concept that allows Charles to show how Paul's travels and the collection project in particular can be read as a transcultural narrative. Understanding the dynamics of diaspora also allows Charles to bring new light to the conflict at Antioch (Galatians 1-2), Paul's relationships with the Gentiles in Galatia, and the fraught relationship with leaders in Jerusalem.