David B. Capes
Houston Graduate School of Theology
"In this brief and compelling book Michael Bird challenges those scholars who think that the earliest recoverable Christology was adoptionist. Instead he proposes that the earliest Christologies formed a pattern of convictions and practices that featured Jesus at the center of Christian devotion. Only later, in the second century among the Theodotians, did adoptionism emerge full-scale in debates over select texts and how they should be interpreted. A careful answer to the perennial question Who is Jesus?"
Craig S. Keener
Asbury Theological Seminary
"An engagingly written, well-researched, and persuasive challenge to a modern (and ancient) adoptionist reading of early Christianity. As one expects from Michael Bird, this book displays his wide-ranging command of relevant disciplines and his respectful engagement with a variety of views."
University of Edinburgh
"Bird mounts a doughty and well-argued challenge to the notion that New Testament texts reflect an adoptionist view of Jesuss relation to God. His detailed discussion of the Gospel of Mark in particular is a substantial contribution to recent debate about its Christology."
St. Mellitus College
"With the swell of publications emerging from such able and diverse scholars as Daniel Kirk, Richard Hays, Brant Pitre, Crispin Fletcher-Louis and others, the time is ripe for a little more systematic reflection on early adoptionist claims. Not only does Michael Bird helpfully summarize the present state of discussion, but he also makes a number of incisive exegetical observations along the way, particularly in relation to Paul and Mark. . . . Any future assertions that the earliest Christology was adoptionist, only becoming fully divine later, will have to reckon with Birds perceptive exegesis."