Synopsis: Through the available patristic writings Caesar and the Lamb focuses on the attitudes of the earliest Christians on war and military service. Kalantzis not only provides the reader with many new translations of pre-Constantinian texts, he also tells the story of the struggle of the earliest Church, the communities of Christ at the margins of power and society, to bear witness to the nations that enveloped them as they transformed the dominant narratives of citizenship, loyalty, freedom, power, and control. Although Kalantzis examines writings on war and military service in the first three centuries of the Christian Church in an organized manner, the ways earliest Christians thought of themselves and the state are not presented here through the lens of antiquarian curiosity. With theological sensitivity and historical acumen this companion leads the reader into the world in which Christianity arose and asks questions of the past that help us understand the early character of the Christian faith with the hope that such an enterprise will also help us evaluate its expression in our own time. Endorsement: "Kalantzis's skills as a historian shine in this remarkable, illuminating history. But his narration is much more than a fine historical survey; it is also a profound engagement with the theological and ethical reasons on why this history matters. Historians, theologians, ethicists, and anyone interested in discovering the witness of the early church are in his debt for such careful work. Any future discussion on the early church's response to war, and the Constantinian shift that occurred, must now pass through Caesar and the Lamb, or be ignored as incomplete." --D. Stephen Long, Professor of Systematic Theology, Marquette University "Caesar and the Lamb is a wonderful collection of pertinent voices from the early church on war and military service that will be of interest to laity, students, and scholars. But it is also much more than this. Kalantzis brings new insight to these texts with his brilliant introduction, placing the conversation in its proper context of identities, worldviews, and ways of life. The result is a collection with surprising and refreshing relevance today." --Daniel M. Bell, Jr., Professor of Theology and Ethics, Lutheran Theological Southern Seminary "Caesar and the Lamb offers a valuable deepening of our understanding, not only of early Christian teachings and practices related to violence, but also the social-cultural-religious practices of the Roman Empire and the Roman military. This book contains both a helpful collection of the primary Christian texts and a substantial interpretive discussion. A significant addition to a growing Christian library of resources on this critical issue." --David P. Gushee, Professor of Christian Ethics, Mercer University Author Biography: George Kalantzis is Associate Professor of Theology at Wheaton College where he also directs The Wheaton Center for Early Christian Studies. He specializes in fourth- and fifth-century historical theology, and has written extensively on Theodore of Mopsuestia, Cyril, and the Nestorian controversy. His has recently co-edited The Sovereignty of God Debate (Cascade 2009), Life in the Spirit: Spiritual Formation in Theological Perspective (2010), and Evangelicals and the Early Church: Recovery, Reform, Renewal (Cascade 2011).