Political Visions & Illusions: A Survey and Christian Critique
Table of Contents

1. Introduction: Ideology, Religion and Idolatry
Politics and Ideas
History and Definitions
Ideology in Christian Perspective
Preconditions for the Rise of Ideologies
Ideology as Religious: Toward a Definition
The Classification of Ideologies: Left and Right
Discerning the Spirits in the Ideologies

2. Liberalism: The Sovereignty of the Individual
The Meanings of Liberalism
The Liberal Creed
Late Liberalism and the Expansion of the State
The Right and the Good: Subsidizing Choices
The Spiritually Vacant State: The Privatization of Ultimate Belief
Sin and Salvation in Liberalism

3. Conservatism: History as Source of Norms
Babies and Bathwater: The Conservative Creed
The Grass Is Greener on Our Side
Which Traditions and When?
Conservatism and Christianity
Conservatism and the State

4. Nationalism: The Nation Deified
A Creed for a Century
Civic and Ethnic Nationalisms: State Versus Tribe
The Nationalist View of the State
Patriotic Loyalty: A Modest Devotion
Christians and Nationalism

5. Democracy: Vox Populi Vox Dei
Structure and Creed
From Liberalism to Democracy
The Majoritarian and Totalitarian Temptations
Democratization Without Limits
Creed and Structure Revisited: Direct Versus Representative Democracy
Representation: Followership or Leadership?
Democracy and Justice: A Final Assessment

6. Socialism: Common Ownership as Salvific
A World of Socialisms
A Transformative Vision
From Democracy to Socialism
Common Ownership and Socialist Ideology
Means and Ends: Equality and How to Get There
The Marxian Vision and Marxism
Fair Distribution of Economic Resources

7. Transcending the Ideologies: Affirming Societal Pluriformity
A Biblical Christian Response
A Christian Worldview: Creation, Fall and Redemption
Creation Order: Misconceptions Dispelled
Discerning the Spirits: Pluralisms and Pluriformity

8. Toward a Nonideological Alternative: Two Historic Christian Approaches
The Role of Catholic Social Teachings
The Principle of Subsidiarity: Affirming Civil Society
The Reformation: Calvin and Althusius
Developments in the Netherlands: Groen and Kuyper
Sovereignty in Its Own Sphere: A Nonhierarchical Affirmation of Civil Society
Dooyeweerd's Contribution

9. The State and Its Task: Doing Justice in God's World
Justice and Differentiated Responsibility
Justice and the State

Epilogue: Toward the Future

Selected Bibliography

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