Separate but Equal: Cistercian Lay Brothers 1120-1350
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The institution of the lay brotherhood was not original to the Cistercians, but they developed it to its fullest extent. Although lay, the conversi were under the same vows as monks and represented a new form of religious life. While monks were bound to the recitation of the Divine Office, the lay brothers were dedicated to a life of toil and acted as the monks' auxiliaries. Their contribution to the spiritual and material life of the Cistercian Order was immense.
By consideration of tales from the exemplum literature, evidence from general chapter statutes, and information on the architectural provisions made for the lay brothers in the abbey and on the outlying granges, this book puts flesh on the bare bones of a life directed by their own Usages. The book is richly illustrated with images from manuscripts, stained glass, and architectural sculpture.
James France received his PhD from Roskilde University, Denmark. He is the author of The Cistercians in Scandinavia, The Cistercians in Medieval Art, and Medieval Images of Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, al published by Cistercian Publications. Dr. France is a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries.
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