Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, 2nd EditionEvangelical Dictionary of Theology, 2nd Edition
Edited by Walter A. Elwell
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Contributors

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Adie, Douglas K. Ph.D., University of Chicago. George F. Bennet Professor of Economics, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois.

Akers, John N. Ph.D., University of Edinburgh. Special Assistant, The Billy Graham Evangelical Association, and Adjunct Professor of Bible, Montreat-Anderson College, Montreat, North Carolina.

Allis, Oswald T. Ph.D., University of Berlin. Sometime Professor of Old Testament, Westminster Theological Seminary, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Allison, C. FitzSimons. D.Phil., Oxford University. Bishop, Diocese of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina.

Anderson, Marvin W. Ph.D., University of Aberdeen. Professor of Church History, Bethel Theological Seminary, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Archer, Gleason Leonard, Jr. Ph.D., Harvard University. Professor of Old Testament and Semitic Languages, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, Deerfield, Illinois.

Atkinson, David J. Ph.D., University of London. Chaplain, Corpus Christi College, Oxford, England.

Babbage, Stuart Barton Ph.D., University of London; Th.D., Australian College of Theology. Registrar, Australian College of Theology, Sydney, Australia.

Baird, John S. S.T.D., Temple University. Denise Professor of Homiletics and Ministry, University of Dubuque Theological Seminary, Dubuque, Iowa.

Baker, William H. Th.D., Dallas Theological Seminary. Associate Professor of Bible and Theology, Moody Bible Institute, Chicago, Illinios.

Barabas, Steven Th.D., Princeton Theological Seminary. Sometime Professor Emeritus of Theology, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois.

Beegle, Dewey M. Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University. Professor of Old Testament, Wesley Theological Seminary, Washington, D.C.

Benner, David G. Ph.D., York University. Professor of Graduate Psychological Studies, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois.

Benton, W. Wilson, Jr. Ph.D., University of Edinburgh. Pastor, Covenant Presbyterian Church, Cleveland, Mississippi.

Bishop, Russel K. Ph.D., McGill University. Professor of History, Gordon College, Wenham, Massachusetts.

Blaising, Craig, A. Th.D., Dallas Theological Seminary. Assistant Professor of Systematic Theology, Dallas Theological Seminary, Dallas, Texas.

Bloesch, Donald G. Ph.D., University of Chicago. Professor of Theology, University of Dubuque Theological Seminary, Dubuque, Iowa.

Boettner, Loraine Th.M., Princeton Theological Seminary. Sometime theological writer.
Borchert, Gerald L. Ph.D., Princeton Theological Seminary. Professor of New Testament Interpretation, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville, Kentucky.

Brandon, Owen Rupert. M.Litt., University of Durham. Formerly Tutor and Librarian, Lecturer in Theology and Psychology, London College of Divinity, London, England; Fellow and Librarian, St. Augustine's College, Canterbury, England.

Bromiley, Geoffrey W. Ph.D., Litt.D., University of Edinburgh. Senior Professor of Church History and Historical Theology, Fuller Theological Seminary, Pasadena, California.

Broomhall, Wick. Th.M., Princeton Theological Seminary. Sometime Minister, Westminster Presbyterian Church, Augusta, Georgia.

Brown, Colin. Ph.D., University of Bristol. Professor of Systematic Theology, Fuller Theological Seminary, Pasadena, California.

Bruce, F.F. M.A., University of Aberdeen; M.A., Cambridge University; M.A., University of Manchester. Formerly Rylands Professor of Biblical Criticism and Exegesis, University of Manchester, Manchester, England.

Burge, Gary M. Ph.D., University of Aberdeen. Assistant Professor, Bible and Religion, King College, Bristol, Tennessee.

Burke, Gary T. Ph.D., University of Iowa. Associate Professor of Religion, Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, New Mexico.

Butman, Richard Eugene. Ph.D., Fuller Theological Seminary. Assistant Professor of Psychology, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois.

Cameron, William John. M.A., University of Edinburgh. Professor Emeritus of New Testament Language, Literature, and Theology, Free Church of Scotland College, Edinburgh, Scotland.

Carson, Don A. Ph.D., Cambridge University. Professor of New Testament, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, Deerfield, Illinois.

Caulley, Thomas Scott. Dr.Theol., University of Tübingen. Assistant Professor of Religion, Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, New Mexico.

Chappell, Paul G. Ph.D., Drew University. Associate Dean of Academic Affairs, School of Theology, Oral Roberts University, Tulsa, Oklahoma.

Clark, Gordon H. Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania. Formerly Professor of Philosopohy, Covenant College, Lookout Mountain, Tennessee.

Cleveland, Howard Z. Th.D., Dallas Theological Seminary. Formerly Chairman of Language Department, Oak Hills Christian Training School, Bemidji, Minnesota.

Clouse, Robert G. Ph.D., University of Iowa. Professor of History, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana.

Coates, Richard John. M.A., University of Bristol. Sometime Vicar of Christ Church, Weston-Super-Mare, Somerset, England; Lecturer, Tyndale Hall, Bristol, England.

Collins, George Norman MacLeod. B.D., Knox College. Professor Emeritus of Church History, Free Church of Scotland College, Edinburgh, Scotland.
Colquhoun, Frank. M.A., Durham University. Canon Emeritus, Norwich Cathedral, Norwich, England.

Corduan, Winfried. Ph.D., Rice University. Associate Professor of Philosophy and Religion, Taylor University, Upland, Indiana.

Corlett, Lewis T. B.A., Peniel College. Formerly President Nazarene Theological Seminary, Kansas City, Missouri.

Craigie, Peter C. Ph.D., McMaster University. Dean, Faculty of Humanities, Univeristy of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta.

Craston, Richard Colin. B.D., University of London. Vicar of St. Paul with Emmanuel and Rural Dean of Bolton, England.

Crum, Terrelle B. M.A., Harvard University. Sometime Dean of the College, Providence Barrington Bible College, Providence, Rhode Island.

Cruz, Virgil. Ph.D., Free University. Professor of Biblical Studies, Western Theological Seminary, Holland, Michigan.

Culbertson, Robert G. Ph.D., University of Cincinnati. Professor of Criminal Justice Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, Illinois.

Danker, Frederick W.. Ph.D., University of Chicago. Professor, Christ Seminary, Seminex, Chicago, Illinois.

Davids, Peter H. Ph.D., University of Manchester. Visiting Professor of New Testament, Regent College, Vancouver, British Columbia.

Davis, Creath. M.Div., Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary. Executive Director, Christian Concern Foundation, Dallas, Texas.

De Koster, Lester. Ph.D., University of Manchester. Editor Emeritus, The Banner.

Demarest, Bruce A. Ph.D., University of Manchester. Professor of Systematic Theology, Denver Conservative Baptist Theological Seminary, Denver, Colorado.

DeVries, Paul Henry. Ph.D., University of Virginia. Associate Professor of Philosophy, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois.

Diehl, David W. Ph.D., Hartford Seminary Foundation. Professor of Religion, The King's College, Briarcliff, New York.
Dieter, Melvin E. Ph.D., Temple University. Professor of Church History and Historical Theology, Asbury Theological Seminary, Wilmore, Kentucky.

Donnelly, John Patrick. S.J. Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison. Associate Professor of History, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Douglas, J.D. Ph.D., Hartford Seminary Foundation. Editor and writer, St. Andrews, Fife, Scotland.

Drickhamer, John M. Th.D., Concordia Seminary, St. Louis. Pastor, Immanuel Lutheran Church, Georgetown, Ontario.

Dunbar, David G. Ph.D., Drew University. Professor of Systematic Theology, Trinity Evangelical Divinity Scholl, Deerfield, Illinois.

Dyrness, William A. D.Theol., Strasbourg University. President and Professor of Theology, New College Berkeley, Berkeley, California.

Earle, Ralph. Th.D., Gordon Divinity School. Distinguished Professor Emeritus of New Testament, Nazarene Theological Seminary, Kansas City, Missouri.

Edman, V. Raymond. Ph.D., Clark University. Sometime President, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois.

Eller, David B. Ph.D., Miami University. Associate Professor of History, Bluffton College, Bluffton, Ohio.

Ellis, E. Earle. Ph.D., University of Edinburgh. Research Professor of New Testament Literature, New Brunswick Theological Seminary, New Brunswick, New Jersey.

Elwell, Walter A. Ph.D., University of Edinburgh. Professor of Bible and Theology, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois.

Enroth, Ronald M. Ph.D., University of Kentucky. Professor of Sociology, Westmont College, Santa Barbara, California.

Erickson, Millard J. Ph.D., Northwestern University. Professor of Theology, Bethel Theological Seminary, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Estep, William R., Jr. Th.D., Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary. Professor of Church History, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, Fort Worth, Texas.

Farrer, Michael Robert Wedlake. M.A., Oxford University. Vicar, St. Paul's Church, Cambridge, England.

Feinberg, Charles L. Th.D., Dallas Theological Seminary; Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University. Dean Emeritus and Professor Emeritus of Semitics and Old Testament, Talbot Theological Seminary, La Mirada, California.

Feinberg, John S. Ph.D., University of Chicago. Associate Professor of Biblical and Systematic Theology, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, Deerfield, Illinois.

Feinberg, Paul D. Th.D., Dallas Theological Seminary. Professor of Biblical and Systematic Theology, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, Deerfield, Illinois.
Ferguson, Duncan S. Ph.D., University of Edinburgh. Chairman, Department of Religion and Philosophy, Whitworth College, Spokane, Washington.

Ferguson, Everett. Ph.D., Harvard University. Professor, Abilene Christian University, Abilene, Texas.

Field, David H.. B.A., Cambridge University. Vice-Principal, Oak Hill College, London, England.

Finger, Thomas N. Ph.D., Claremont School of Theology. Associate Professor of Systematic Theology, Northern Baptist Theological Seminary, Lombard, Illinois.

Fisher, Fred Lewis. Th.D., Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary. Director and Professor in Residence, Southern California Center, Golden Gate Baptist Theological Seminary, Mill Valley, California.

Fletcher, David B. Ph.D., University of Illinois. Assistant Professor of Philosophy, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois.

Frame, John M. M.Phil., Yale University. Associate Professor of Apologetics and Systematic Theology, Westminster Theological Seminary, Escondido, California.

Franklin, Stephen T. Ph.D., University of Chicago. Professor of Systematic Theology, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois.

Freundt, Albert H., Jr. M.Div., Columbia Theological Seminary. Professor of Church History and Polity, Reformed Theological Seminary, Jackson, Mississippi.

Fry, C. George. Ph.D., Ohio State University; D.Min., Winebrenner Theological Seminary. Associate Professor of Historical Theology, Concordia Theological Seminary, Fort Wayne, Indiana.

Gallatin, Harlie Kay. Ph.D., University of Illinois. Professor of History, Southwestern Baptist University, Bolivar, Missouri.

Gasque, W. Ward. Ph.D., University of Manchester. Vice-Principal, Regent College, Vancouver, British Columbia.

Gay, George Arthur. Ph.D., University of Manchester. Senior Associate Professor of New Testament, Fuller Theological Seminary, Pasadena, California.

Geisler, Norman L. Ph.D., Loyola University of Chicago. Professor of Systematic Theology, Dallas Theological Seminary, Dallas, Texas.

German, Terence J. S.J. Ph.D., Oxford University. Professor of Systematics, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Gerstner, John H. Ph.D., Harvard University. Professor at Large, Ligonier Valley Study Center, Ligonier, Pennsylvania.

Gill, David W. Ph.D., University of Southern California. Dean and Associate Professor of Christian Ethics, New College Berkeley, Berkeley, California.
Glasser, Arthur F. D.D., Covenant Theological Seminary. Dean Emeritus, School of World Mission, and Senior Professor of Theology and East Asian Studies, Fuller Theological Seminary, Pasadena, California.

Goddard, Burton L. Th.D., Harvard University. Dean Emeritus, Gordon Conwell Theological Seminary, South Hamilton, Massachusetts.

Goldberg, Louis. Th.D., Grace Theological Seminary. Professor of Theology and Jewish Studies, Moody Bible Institute, Chicago, Illinois.

Gouvea, Fernando Q. M.A., University of São Paulo. Formerly Assistant Professor of Mathematics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Granberg, Lars I. Ph.D., University of Chicago. Peter C. and Emajean Cook Professor of Psychology, Hope College, Holland, Michigan.

Grider, J. Kenneth. Ph.D., Glasgow University. Professor of Theology, Nazarene Theological Seminary, Kansas City, Missouri.

Griffith, Howard. M.Div., Gordon Conwell Theological Seminary. Associate Pastor, Stony Point Reformed Presbyterian Church, Richmond, Virginia.

Grudem, Wayne A. Ph.D., Cambridge University. Associate Professor of New Testament, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, Deerfield, Illinois.

Gruenler, Royce G. Ph.D., University of Aberdeen. Professor of New Testament, Gordon Conwell Theological Seminary, South Hamilton, Massachusetts.

Gundry, Stanley N. S.T.D., Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago. Executive Editor, Academic Books, Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, Michigan.

Guthrie, Donald. Ph.D., University of London. Formerly Vice-Principal, London Bible College, London, England.

Habermas, Gary R. Ph.D., Michigan State University. Associate Professor of Apologetics and Philosophy, Liberty Baptist College and Seminary, Fort Lynchburg, Virginia.

Hall, Joseph H. Th.D., Concordia Seminary, St. Louis. Associate Professor of Church History and Librarian, Covenant Theological Seminary, St. Louis, Missouri.

Harm, Frederick R. Th.D., American Divinity School. Pastor, Good Shepherd Lutheran Church, Des Plaines, Illinois; Visiting Professor of Systematic Theology, Concordia Seminary, St. Louis, Missouri.

Harris, R. Laird. Ph.D., Dropsie College. Professor Emeritus of Old Testament, Covenant Theological Seminary, St. Louis, Missouri.

Harrison, Everett F. Th.D., Dallas Theological Seminary; Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania. Professor Emeritus of New Testament, Fuller Theological Seminary, Pasadena, California.

Harrison, R.K. Ph.D., University of London. Professor of Old Testament, Wycliffe College, Toronto, Ontario.

Hasel, Gerhard F. Ph.D., Vanderbilt University. Dean and Professor of Old Testament, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, Michigan.
Hawthorne, Gerald F. Ph.D., University of Chicago. Professor of Greek, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois.

Healey, Robert M. Ph.D., Yale University. Professor of Church History, University of Dubuque Theological Seminary, Dubuque, Iowa.

Hein, Rolland N. Ph.D., Purdue University. Professor of English, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois.

Heinze, Rudolph W. Ph.D., University of Iowa. Lecturer in Church History, Oak Hill College, London, England.

Henry, Carl F.H. Th.D., Northern Baptist Theological Seminary; Ph.D., Boston University. Distinguished Visiting Professor of Religion, Hillsdale College, Hillsdale, Michigan.

Hesselgrave, David J. Ph.D., University of Minnesota. Professor of World Mission, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, Deerfield, Illinois.

Hexham, Irving. Ph.D., University of Bristol. Assistant Professor of Religion, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba.

Higginson, Richard Edwin. B.D., University of London. Formerly Lecturer in Tyndale Hall, Bristol, England.

Hoehner, Harold W. Th.D., Dallas Theological Seminary. Professor of New Testament Literature and Exegesis, Dallas Theological Seminary, Dallas, Texas.

Hoffecker, W. Andrew. Ph.D., Brown University. Professor of Religion, Grove City College, Grove City, Pennsylvania.

Hoover, A.J. Ph.D., University of Texas. Professor of History, Abilene Christian University, Abilene, Texas.

Hope, Norman Victor. Ph.D., University of Edinburgh. Archibald Alexander Professor of Church History Emeritus, Princeton Theological Seminary, Princeton, New Jersey.

Horn, Carl, III. J.D., University of South Carolina. Attorney, Civil Rights Division, United States Department of Justice, Washington, D.C.

Houston, James M. D.Phil., Oxford University. Chancellor and Professor of Spiritual Theology, Regent College, Vancouver, British Columbia.

Howe, E. Margaret. Ph.D., University of Manchester. Professor of Religion, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky.

Hubbard, David A. Ph.D., St. Andrews University. President, Fuller Theological Seminary, Pasadena, California.

Hughes, Philip Edgcumbe. D.Litt., University of Cape Town; Th.D., Australian College of Theology. Professor Emeritus, Trinity Episcopal School for Ministry, Ambridge, Pennsylvania.

Hummel, Horace D. Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University. Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, Concordia Seminary, St. Louis, Missouri.
Imbach, Stuart R. Diploma in Bible, Prairie Bible Institute. Communications Department Director, Overseas Missionary Fellowship, Singapore.

Inch, Morris A. Ph.D., Boston University. Professor of Theology, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois.

Ippel, Henry P. Ph.D., University of Michigan. Professor of History, Calvin College, Grand Rapids, Michigan.

Jewett, Paul K. Ph.D., Harvard University. Professor of Systematic Theology, Fuller Theological Seminary, Pasadena, California.

Johnson, Alan F. Th.D., Dallas Theological Seminary. Professor of Biblical Studies, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois.

Johnson, James E. Ph.D., Syracuse University. Professor of History, Bethel College, St. Paul, Michigan.

Johnson, John F. Th.D., Concordia Seminary, St. Louis; Ph.D., St. Louis University. Associate Professor of Systematic Theology, Concordia Seminary, St. Louis, Missouri.

Johnson, S. Lewis. Th.D., Dallas Theological Seminary. Professor of Biblical and Systematic Theology, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, Deerfield, Illinois.

Johnston, O. Raymond. M.A., Oxford University. Director, Christian Action, Research and Education Trust, London, England.

Johnston, Robert K. Ph.D., Duke University. Dean, North Park Theological Seminary, Chicago, Illinois.

Justice, William G., Jr. D.Min., Luther Rice Seminary. Director of Pastoral Care, East Tennesse Baptist Hospital, Knoxville, Tennessee.

Kantzer, Kenneth S. Ph.D., Harvard University. President, Trinity College, Deerfield, Illinois; Dean Emeritus, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, Deerfield, Illinois.

Kelly, Douglas F. Ph.D., University of Edinburgh. Visiting Professor of Systematic Theology, Reformed Theological Seminary, Jackson, Mississippi.

Kent, Homer A., Jr. Th.D., Grace Theological Seminary. President, Grace College and Theological Seminary, Winona Lake, Indiana.

Kerr, David W. Th.D., Harvard University. Sometime Professor of Old Testament, Gordon Conwell Theological Seminary, South Hamilton, Massachusetts. Deceased.

Kerr, William Nigel. Th.D., Northern Baptist Theological Seminary; Ph.D., University of Edinburgh. Professor of Church History and Missions, Gordon Conwell Theological Seminary, South Hamilton, Massachusetts.

Kevan, Ernest F. Ph.D., University of London. Sometime Principal, London Bible College, London, England.

Kistemaker, Simon J. Th.D., Free University. Professor of New Testament, Reformed Theological Seminary, Jackson, Mississippi.
Klooster, Fred H. Th.D., Free University. Professor of Systematic Theology, Calvin Theological Seminary, Grand Rapids, Michigan.

Klotz, John W. Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh. Professor of Practical Theology and Director, School for Graduate Studies, Concordia Seminary, St. Louis, Missouri.

Knight, George W., III. Th.D., Free University. Professor of New Testament, Covenant Theological Seminary, St. Louis, Missouri.

Knox, David Broughton. D.Phil., Oxford University. Formerly Principal of Moore College, Sydney, Australia.

Kroeger, Catherine Clark. M.A., University of Minnesota.

Kroeger, Richard C. S.T.M., University of Iowa. Formerly Assistant Professor of Religion, Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, New Mexico.

Kromminga, Carl Gerhard. Th.D., Free University. Professor of Practical Theology, Calvin Theological Seminary, Grand Rapids, Michigan.

Kubricht, Paul. Ph.D., Ohio State University. Associate Professor of History, LeTourneau College, Longview, Texas.

Kuhn, Harold B. Ph.D., Harvard University. Professor Emeritus of Philosophy of Religion, Asbury Theological Seminary, Wilmore, Kentucky.

Kyle, Richard. Ph.D., University of New Mexico. Professor of History and Religion, Tabor College, Hillsboro, Kansas.

La Bar, Martin. Ph.D., University of Wisconsin. Professor of Science, Central Wesleyan College, Central, South Carolina.

Ladd, George Eldon. Ph.D., Harvard University. Sometime Professor Emeritus of New Testament Theology and Exegesis, Fuller Theological Seminary, Pasadena, California.

Lamorte, André. Th.D., Montpellier University. Sometime Professor of Theology at Aix-en-Provence, France.

LaSor, William Sanford. Th.D., University of California, Los Angeles; Ph.D., Dropsie University. Professor Emeritus of Old Testament, Fuller Theological Seminary, Pasadena, California.

Laurin, Robert B. Ph.D., St. Andrews University. Dean, American Baptist Seminary of the West, Berkeley, California.

Lewis, Gordon R. Ph.D., Syracuse University. Professor of Theology and Philosophy, Denver Conservative Baptist Theological Seminary, Denver, Colorado.

Liefield, Walter L. Ph.D., Columbia University. Professor of New Testament, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, Deerfield, Illinois.

Lightner, Robert P. Th.D., Dallas Theological Seminary. Associate Professor of Systematic Theology, Dallas Theological Seminary, Dallas, Texas.

Linder, Robert D. Ph.D., University of Iowa. Professor of History, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas.

Lindsell, Harold. Ph.D., New York University. Editor Emeritus, Christianity Today.
Lowery, David K. Th.M., Dallas Theological Seminary. Assistant Professor of New Testament Literature and Exegesis, Dallas Theological Seminary, Dallas, Texas.

Lundin, Roger. Ph.D., University of Connecticut. Associate Professor of English, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois.

Lyon, Robert W. Ph.D., St. Andrews University. Professor of New Testament Interpretation, Asbury Theological Seminary, Wilmore, Kentucky.

McClelland, Scott E. Ph.D., University of Edinburgh. Assistant Professor of Religion, The King's College, Briarcliff Manor, New York.

McComiskey, Thomas Edward. Ph.D., Brandeis University. Professor of Semitic Languages and Old Testament, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, Deerfield, Illinois.

McDonald, H.D. Ph.D., D.D., University of London. Formerly Vice-Principal, London Bible College, London, England.

Macdonald, Michael H. Ph.D., University of Washington. Professor of German and Philosophy, Seattle Pacific University, Seattle, Washington.

McGavran, Donald A. Ph.D., Columbia University. Dean Emeritus and Senior Professor of Mission, Fuller Theological Seminary, Pasadena, California.

McIntire, C.T. Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania. Senior Member in History, Institute for Christian Studies, Toronto, Ontario.

McKim, Donald K. Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh. Assistant Professor of Theology, University of Dubuque Theological Seminary, Dubuque, Iowa.

McRay, John R. Ph.D., University of Chicago. Professor of New Testament and Archaeology, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois.

Magnuson, Norris A. Ph.D., University of Minnesota. Professor of Church History, Bethel Theological Seminary, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Marchant, George John Charles. B.D., University of Durham. Archdeacon Emeritus, Durham Cathedral, Durham, England.

Mare, W. Harold. Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania. Professor of New Testament, Covenant Theological Seminary, St. Louis, Missouri.

Marshall, Caroline T. Ph.D., University of Virginia. Professor of History, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, Virginia.

Martin, Dennis D. Ph.D., University of Waterloo. Editor and Visiting Instructor, Institute of Mennonite Studies, Associated Mennonite Biblical Seminaries, Elkhart, Indiana.

Masselink, William. Th.D., Free University; Ph.D., Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. Sometime Teacher of Reformed Doctrine, Reformed Bible College, Grand Rapids, Michigan.

Mathew, C.V. Th.M., Serampore University. Lecturer in Religion and Society, Union Biblical Seminary, Pune, India.

Mennell, James E. Ph.D., University of Iowa. Associate Professor of History, Slippery Rock State College, Slippery Rock, Pennsylvania.
Mickey, Paul A. Ph.D., Princeton Theological Seminary. Associate Professor of Pastoral Theology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.

Miller, Douglas J. Ph.D., Claremont School of Theology. Professor of Christian Social Ethics, Eastern Baptist Theological Seminary, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Moberg, David O. Ph.D., University of Minnesota. Professor of Sociology, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Morris, Leon. Ph.D., Cambridge University. Former Principal, Ridley College, Melbourne, Australia.

Motyer, J.A. B.D., Trinity College, Dublin. Minister of Christ Church, Westbourne, Dorset, England.

Mounce, Robert H. Ph.D., University of Aberdeen. President, Whitworth College, Spokane, Washington.

Mounce, William D. Ph.D., University of Aberdeen. Assistant Professor of New Testament, Azusa Pacific University, Azusa, California.

Moyer, James C. Ph.D., Brandeis University. Professor of Religious Studies, Southwest Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri.

Mueller, J. Theodore. Th.D., Xenia Theological Seminary; Ph.D., Webster University. Sometime Professor of Doctrinal and Exegetical Theology, Concordia Seminary, St. Louis, Missouri.

Nicole, Roger. Ph.D., Harvard University. Andrew Mutch Professor of Theology, Gordon Conwell Theological Seminary, South Hamilton, Massachusetts.

Noll, Mark A. Ph.D., Vanderbilt University. Professor of History and Church History, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois.

Noll, Stephen F. Ph.D., University of Manchester. Assistant Professor of Biblical Studies, Trinity Episcopal School for Ministry, Ambridge, Pennsylvania.

Obitts, Stanley R. Ph.D., University of Edinburgh. Professor of Philosophy, Westmont College, Santa Barbara, California.

Oliver, O. Guy, Jr. B.D., Louisville Presbyterian Theological Seminary. Associate Professor of Christian Mission, Erskine Theological Seminary, Due West, South Carolina.

O'Malley, J. Steven. Ph.D., Drew University. Professor of Church History, Oral Roberts University, Tulsa, Oklahoma.

Omanson, Roger L. Ph.D., Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. Assistant Professor of New Testament Interpretation, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville, Kentucky.

Osborne, Grant R. Ph.D., University of Aberdeen. Associate Professor of New Testament, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, Deerfield, Illinois.

Osterhaven, M. Eugene. Th.D., Princeton Theological Seminary. Albertus C. Van Raalte Professor of Systematic Theology, Western Theological Seminary, Holland, Michigan.
Packer, James I. D.Phil., Oxford University. Professor of Historical and Systematic Theology, Regent College, Vancouver, British Columbia.

Parker, Thomas Henry Louis. D.D., Cambridge University. Formerly Reader in Theology, University of Durham, Durham, England.

Payne, J. Burton. Ph.D., Princeton Theological Seminary. Sometime Professor of Old Testament, Covenant Theological Seminary, St. Louis, Missouri.

Perkin, Hazel W. M.A., McGill University. Principal, St. Clement's School, Toronto, Ontaria.

Pfeiffer, Charles F. Ph.D., Dropsie College. Sometime Professor of Ancient Literatures, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, Michigan.

Pierard, Richard V. Ph.D., University of Iowa. Professor of History, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana.

Piggin, F. Stuart. Ph.D., University of London. Senior Lecturer in Religious History, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.

Preus, Robert D. Ph.D., University of Edinburgh; D.Theol., Strasbourg University. President, Concordia Theological Seminary, Fort Wayne, Indiana.

Proctor, William Cecil Gibbon. B.D., Trinity College, Dublin. Formerly Lecturer in the Divinity School, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.

Pun, Pattle P.T. Ph.D., State University of New York at Buffalo. Associate Professor of Biology, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois.

Ramm, Bernard. Ph.D., University of Southern California. Professor of Christian Theology, American Baptist Seminary of the West, Berkeley, California.

Rausch, David A. Ph.D., Kent State University. Professor of Church History and Judaic Studies, Ashland Theological Seminary, Ashland, Ohio.

Rayburn, Robert G. Th.D., Dallas Theological Seminary. Professor of Practical Theology, Covenant Theological Seminary, St. Louis, Missouri.

Rayburn, Robert S. Ph.D., University of Aberdeen. Pastor, Faith Presbyterian Church, Tacoma, Washington.

Rehwinkel, Alfred Martin. B.D., St. Stephen's Theological College. Formerly Professor of Theology, Concordia Seminary, St. Louis, Missouri.

Reid, William Stanford. Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania. Professor Emeritus of History, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario.

Rennie, Ian S. Ph.D., University of Toronto. Dean and Professor of Church History, Ontario Theological Seminary, Willowdale, Ontario.

Renwick, Alexander MacDonald. D.Litt., University of Edinburgh. Sometime Professor of Church History, Free Church of Scotland College, Edinburgh, Scotland.

Reymond, Robert L. Ph.D., Bob Jones University. Professor of Systamatic Theology and Apologetics, Covenant Theological Seminary, St. Louis, Missouri.

Ringenberg, William C. Ph.D., Michigan State University. Professor of History, Taylor University, Upland, Indiana.
Ro, Bong Rin. Th.D., Concordia Seminary, St. Louis. Executive Secretary, Asia Theological Association, Taichung, Taiwan.

Roberts, Arthur O. Ph.D., Boston University. Professor of Religion and Philosophy, George Fox College, Newberg, Oregon.

Roberts, Robert C. Ph.D., Yale University. Associate Professor of Philosophy, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky.

Robinson, Donald W.B. Th.D., Australian College of Theology. Archbishop of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Robinson, William Childs. Th.D., Harvard University. Sometime Professor of Church History and Polity, Columbia Theological Seminary, Columbia, South Carolina.

Ross, Alexander. M.A., University of Edinburgh. Sometime Professor Emeritus, New Testament Exegesis, Free Church of Scotland College, Edinburgh, Scotland.

Rule, Andrew Kerr. Ph.D., University of Edinburgh. Formerly Professor Church History and Apologetics, Louisville Theological Seminary, Louisville, Kentucky.

Ryrie, Charles C. Th.D., Dallas Theological Seminary; Ph.D., Unviersity of Edinburgh. Professor of Systematic Theology, Dallas Theological Seminary, Dallas, Texas.

Saucy, Robert L. Th.D., Dallas Theological Seminary. Professor of Systematic Theology, Talbot Theological Seminary, La Mirada, California.

Schnucker, Robert V. Ph.D., University of Iowa. Professor of History and Religion, Missouri State University, Kirksville, Missouri.

Scholer, David M. Th.D., Harvard Divinity School. Dean of the Seminary and Professor of New Testament, Northern Baptist Theological Seminary, Lombard, Illinois.

Scott, J. Julius, Jr. Ph.D., University of Manchester. Professor of Bible and Theology, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois.

Seerveld, Calvin G. Ph.D., Free University. Senior Member in Philosophical Aesthetics, Institute for Christian Studies, Toronto, Ontario.

Shelley, Bruce L. Ph.D., University of Iowa. Professor of Church History, Denver Conservative Baptist Theological Seminary, Denver, Colorado.

Shelton, R. Larry. Th.D., Fuller Theological Seminary. Director, School of Religion, Seattle Pacific Univeristy, Seattle, Washington.

Simpson, Dale. Ph.D., Georgia State University. Clinical Directory, Family Life Counseling Services, Bryan Texas.

Singer, Charles Gregg. Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania. Professor of Church History and Systematic Theology, Atlanta School of Biblical Studies, Atlanta, Georgia.

Skillen, James W. Ph.D., Duke University. Director, Association for Public Justice, Washington, D.C.

Skoglund, Elizabeth R. M.A., Pasadena College. Marriage, Family, and Child Couselor and Writer, Burbank, California.
Smith, Stephen M. Ph.D., Claremont School of Theology. Assistant Professor of Systematic Theology, Trinity Episcopal School for Ministry, Ambridge, Pennsylvania.

Smith, Wilbur M. D.D., Dallas Theological Seminary. Sometime Professor of English Bible, Fuller Theological Seminary, Pasadena, California.

Spiceland, James D. Ph.D., Oxford University. Associate Professor of Philosophy, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky.

Sprunger, Keith L. Ph.D., University of Illinois. Professor of History, Bethel College, North Newton, Kansas.

Stanton, Gerald Barry. Th.D., Dallas Theological Seminary. President, Ambassadors International, West Palm Beach, Florida.

Steeves, Paul D. Ph.D., University of Kansas. Professor of History, Stetson University, De Land, Florida.

Stein, Robert H. Ph.D., Princeton Theological Seminary. Professor of New Testament, Bethel Theological Seminary, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Synan, Vinson. Ph.D., University of Georgia. Executive Director, Department of Evangelism, Pentecostal Holiness Church, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

Taylor, Stephen. M.A., Wheaton College.

Tenney, Merrill C. Ph.D., Harvard University. Professor of Emeritus of Bible and Theology, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois.

Thomas, Robert L. Th.D., Dallas Theological Seminary. Professor of New Testament Language and Literature, Talbot Theological Seminary, La Mirada, California.

Thomson, J.G.S.S. Ph.D., University of Edinburgh. Formerly Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament, Columbia Theological Seminary, Decatur, Georgia.

Tinder, Donald G. Ph.D., Yale University. Associate Professor of Church History, New College Berkeley, Berkeley, California.

Tongue, Denis Harold. Ph.D., Cambridge University. Formerly Lecturer in New Testament, Tyndale Hall, Bristol, England.

Toon, Peter. D.Phil., Oxford University. Director of Postordinational Training, Diocese of St. Edmundsbury and Ipswich, Boxford, England.

Troutman, Richard L. Ph.D., University of Kentucky. Professor of History, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky.

Tuttle, Robert G., Jr. Ph.D., University of Bristol. Professor of Historical Theology, School of Theology, Oral Roberts University, Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Unger, Merrill F. Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University; Th.D., Dallas Theological Seminary. Sometime Chairman of Old Testament Department, Dallas Theological Seminary, Dallas, Texas.

Unmack, Robert V. Th.D., Central Baptist Theological Seminary. Sometime Professor of New Testament, Central Baptist Theological Seminary, Kansas City, Kansas.

VanderMolen, Ronald J. Ph.D., Michigan State University. Professor of History, California State College, Stanislaus, Turlock, California.

Van Engen, John. Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles. Professor of History, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana.

Van Gemeren, Willem A. Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison. Associate Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Literature, Reformed Theological Seminary, Jackson, Mississippi.

Vos, Howard F. Th.D., Dallas Theological Seminary; Ph.D., Northwestern University. Professor of History and Archaeology, The King's College, Briarcliff Manor, New York.

Waetjen, Herman Charles. Th.D., University of Tübingen. Robert S. Dollar Professor of New Testament, San Francisco Theological Seminary, San Francisco, California.

Wallace, David H. Ph.D., University of Edinburgh. Associate Professor of Biblical Theology, California Baptist Theological Seminary, Covina, California.

Wallace, Ronald Steward. Ph.D., University of Edinburgh. Professor Emeritus of Biblical Theology, Columbia Theological Seminary, Columbia, South Carolina.

Walls, Andrew Finlay. B.Litt., Cambridge University. Professor of Religious Studies, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland.

Walter, Victor L. Th.M., Princeton Theological Seminary. Pastor, Calvary Mennonite Church, Aurora, Oregon.

Walvoord, John F. Th.D., Dallas Theological Seminary; D.D., Wheaton College. President, Dallas Theological Seminary, Dallas, Texas.

Ward, Wayne E. Th.D., Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. Professor of Theology, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville, Kentucky.

Weaver, J. Denny. Ph.D., Duke University. Professor of Religion, Bluffton College, Bluffton, Ohio.

Weber, Timothy P. Ph.D., University of Chicago. Associate Professor of Church History, Denver Conservative Baptist Theological Seminary, Denver, Colorado.

Webster, Douglas D. Ph.D., University of Toronto. Professor of Theology, Ontario Theological Seminary, Willowdale, Ontario.

Weinrich, William C. Th.D., University of Basel. Associate Professor of Early Church History and Patristic Studies, Concordia Theological Seminary, Fort Wayne, Indiana.
Wenger, J.C. Th.D., University of Zurich. Professor of Historical Theology, Goshen Biblical Seminary, Elkhart, Indiana.

Wheaton, David H. M.A., University of London. Principal, Oak Hill Bible College, London, England.

White, R.E.O. B.D., University of London. Theological writer.

White, Ronald C., Jr. Ph.D., Princeton University. Associate Director of Continuing Education and Lecturer in Church History, Princeton Theological Seminary, Princeton, New Jersey.

Whitlock, Luder G., Jr. D.Min., Vanderbilt University. President, Reformed Theological Seminary, Jackson, Mississippi.

Williams, J. Rodman. Ph.D., Columbia University. Professor of Christian Theology, School of Biblical Studies, CBN University, Virginia Beach, Virginia.

Wilson, Marvin R. Ph.D., Brandeis University. Ockenga Professor of Biblical Studies, Gordon College, Wenham, Massachusetts.

Wolf, Herbert M. Ph.D., Brandeis University. Associate Professor of Old Testament, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois.

Wood, James E., Jr. Ph.D., Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. Simon and Ethel Bunn Professor of Church-State Studies and Director, Institute of Church-State Studies, Baylor University, Waco, Texas.

Woolley, Paul. Th.M., Princeton Theological Seminary. Professor Emeritus of Church History, Westminster Theological Seminary, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Woudstra, Marten H. Th.D., Westminster Theological Seminary. Professor of Old Testament Studies, Calvin Theological Seminary, Grand Rapids, Michigan.

Wright, David F. M.A., Cambridge University. Senior Lecturer in Ecclesiastical History, University of Edinburgh, Scotland.

Wright, John Stafford. M.A., Cambridge University. Formerly Principal, Tyndale Hall, Bristol, England.

Wyngaarden, Martin J. Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania. Sometime Professor of Old Testament Interpretation, Calvin Theological Seminary, Grand Rapids, Michigan.

Youngblood, Ronald. Ph.D., Dropsie College. Professor of Old Testament and Hebrew, Bethel Seminary West, San Diego, California.

Zerner, Ruth. Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley. Associate Professor of History, Lehman College, City University of New York, New York, New York.