The Jewish Apocalyptic Heritage in Early ChristianityThe Jewish Apocalyptic Heritage in Early Christianity
James C. VanderKam & William Adler

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The five chapters of this volume, written by four different authors, together investigate the ways in which early Christians appropriated Jewish apocalyptic material. An introductory chapter surveys ancient perceptions of the apocalypses as well as their function, authority, and survival in the early Church. The chapter also raises important issues about the way modern scholars view apocalyptic thought. The second chapter focuses on a specific tradition by exploring the status of the Enoch-literature, the use made of the fallen-angel motif and the identification of Enoch as an eschatological witness. Christian transmission of Jewish texts is a topic whose significance is more and more being recognized, thus chapter htree analyses what happened to 4, 5, and 6 Ezra while being copied and edited within Christian tradition. Chapter four is devoted to regional developments of apocalyptic traditions, particularly by sectarian Christian circles in Egypt. The fifth and last chapter studies the apocalyptic perception of history, especially Daniel's vision of 70 weeks, as used and adapted by early Christian authors.
     

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Preface
Chapter One: Introduction
by William Adler
Jewish Apocalypses in Christian Settings
The Christian Use of the Jewish Apocalyptic Tradition
Approaches to the Question
P. Vielhauer and Early Christian 'Apocalyptic'
Early Christianity as the Bearer of the Jewish Apocalyptic Tradition
Scope and Method of the Present Study
Early Christian Perceptions of the Jewish Apocalypses
The Use of the Word
Christian Identification of an Apocalyptic 'Genre'
The Jewish Apocalypses as 'Esoteric Book Wisdom'
Possible Functions of the Jewish Apocalypses in Early Christianity
Esotericism as a Literary Motif
Apocalyptic Writings in Sectarian Self-Definition
The Jewish Apocalypses and the Question of their Authority
The Self-Validating Claims of the Jewish Apocalypses
The Uncertain Status of the Jewish Apocalypses
The Survival and 'Christianization' of Older Jewish Apocalypses
Apocalyptic Themes in Non-Apocalyptic Genres

Chapter Two: 1 Enoch, Enochic Motifs, and Enoch in Early Christian Literature

by James C. VanderKam
The Status of Enochic Literature in Early Christianity
Introduction
Chronological Survey
Jude (Palestine? second half of the first century)
Barnabas (Alexandria; second half of the first century)
Athenagoras, Embassy for the Christains (Alexandria; 176-80 CE)
Irenaeus (Gaul ca 130- ca 200)
Clement of Alexandria (Egypt; ca 150-ca 215)
Tertullian (North Africa ca 160 - ca 220)
Origen (Egypt and Palestine ca 185 - ca254)
Summary
Early Christian Uses of the Enochic Angel Story
Introduction
Chronological Survey
1 Pet 3:19-20
Jude 6
2 Pet 2:4
Justin Martyr (Syria-Palestine died ca 167)
Tatian (Rome and Antioch; ca 110-72)
Athenagoras
Irenaeus
Clement of Alexandria
Bardaisan (Syria 154-222)
Tertullian
Gnostic Uses of the Angel Story
The Pseudo-Clementine Literature
Julius Africanus (various places ca 160 - ca 240)
Origen
Commondian (mid-third century)
Cyprian (Carthage; died 258)
Zosimus of Panopolis (late third - early fourth century)
Gen 6:1-4 in the fourth century
Summary
The Person of Enoch in Early Christian Literature
Introduction
Revelation 11
Chronological Survey
The Apocalypse of Peter (second century)
Tertullian
Hippolytus (Rome; ca 170-236)
The Apocalypse of Elijah (Egypt; third-fourth centuries)
The Apocalypse of John (third-fifth centuires)
Possible Sources for the Identification of Enoch as One of the Witnesses
Concusion

Chatper Three: Christian Influence on the Transmission History of 4, 5, and 6 Exra
By Theodore A. Bergren
The Transmission History of 4 Ezra in Hebrew and Greek
Christian Influence in the Extant Tertiary Versions of 4 Ezra
The Latin Version
The Syriac Version
The Ethiopic Version
The Georgian Version
The Arabic1 Version
The Arabic2 Version
The Armenian Version
The Coptic Version
Conclusions
Christian Influence in the LAtin Transmission History of 4, 5, and 6 Ezra
Background
The Process of Association of 4, 5, and 6 Ezra
The Recensional Situation
Geographical Considerations
Conclusions
Chapter Four: The Legacy of Jewish Apocalypses in Early Christianity: Regional Trajectories
by David Frankfurter
Introduction
Apocalypses and Apocalypticism
A Regional Approach to the Use of Apocalypses
Apocalypticism in Asia Minor
Introduction
Prophetic Sects and Literary Composition
Evidence for Jewish Apocalyptic Literature
The Byzantine Legacy of the Ascension of Isaih
COnclusions
Egyptian Apocalypticism (1): Gnosis and Holy Books
Judaism in Egypt
Egyptian Priestly 'Apocalypticism'
Religious Continuities Between Jewish Apocalypticism and Gnosticism
Mission and Book
Self-Definition
Liturgy
Literary Continuities Between Jewish Apocalypses and Gnostic Texts
Conclusion
Egyptian Apocalypticism (2): Millennialist Groups and Holy Men
Apocalyptic Movements in the Third Century
Apocalypses and Sectarianism in the Fourth Century
Visions
Names and Avatars of the 'Saints'
Monastic Scriptoria, Fourth through Seventh Centuries
Manuscripts
Hagiography
Martyrology
Apocalypticism in Coptic Egypt
Egyptian Apocalypticism: Conclusions
Two Kinds of Apocalypticism
Apocalypses and Scripture in Egyptian Christanity
Chapter Five: The Apocalyptic Survey of History Adapted by Christians: Daniel's Prophecy of 70 Weeks
by William Adler
Introduction
Daniel's 70 Weeks and the 'Apocalyptic View of History'
History as Revealed Wisdom
The Current Crisis as the Foreordained Culmination of History
The 70 Weeks of Years in Jewish Chronography of the Second Temple Period
The Old Greek Rendering of Dan 9:24-27
Daniel 9 in Jewish 'Apocalyptic Chronography'
Josephus and the Crisis of the Jewish War
Josephus and Daniel's Apocalyptic Hope
Josephus' 'Amibiguous Oracle'
The '70 Weeks' in Christian Exegesis
Early Treatment of the Prophecy
Historicizing Interpretations of Daniel 9 after the First Century
The Adaptation of a Jewish Exegetical Tradition
The Theodotionic Rendering of Dan 9:25
Clement's Stromata
Hippolytus's Segmentation of the 70 Year-Weeks
Eusebius' Interpretation of Daniel's Vision
Daniel 9 in Eusebius Demonstratio Evangelica
Alexander Jannaeus
Eusebius' 'Third Theory' and Herod's Cessation of Priestly Unction
Herod, the 'Coming Prince' and Gen 49:10
The Formation of a Christian View of Universal History
Eusebius' Catalogue' of High Priests and the Shaping of Sacred History

Abbreviations
Cumulative Bibliography
Index of Sources
Index of Names, Places, and Subjects
Index of Modern Authors