Exploring Creation With Biology
Module 1 : Biology, The Study Of Life
  Introduction 1
  What is Life? 1
  DNA and Life 1
  Energy Conversion and Life 2
  Sensing and Responding to Change 6
  All Life Forms Reproduce 7
  Life's Secret Ingredient 8
  The Scientific Method 9
  Limitations of the Scientific Method 12
  Spontaneous Generation: The Faithful Still Cling to It! 16
  Biological Classification 17
  Characteristics Used to Separate Organisms into Kingdoms 19
  The Definition of Species 21
  Biological Keys 22
  Experiment 1.1: Using a Biological Key 26
  Naming Organisms Based on Classification 28
  The Microscope 29
  Experiment 1.2: Introduction to the Microscope 30
Module 2 : Kingdom Monera
  Introduction 37
  Bacteria 37
  Metabolism in Bacteria 41
  Asexual Reproduction in Bacteria 44
  Sexual Reproduction in Bacteria 47
  Other Forms of Bacterial "Reproduction" 49
  Bacterial Colonies 50
  Experiment 2.1: Pond Life A 52
 
Classification in Kingdom Monera 53
  Specific Bacteria 56
  Preventing Bacterial Infections 58
  Experiment 2.2: Pond Life B 60
Module 3: Kingdom Protista
  Introduction 67
  Experiment 3.1: Pond Life C 67
  Classification in Kingdom Protista 68
  Subkingdom Protozoa 71
  Phylum Sarcodina 71
  Phylum Mastigophora 74
  Phylum Ciliophora 78
  Phylum Sporozoa 80
  Experiment 3.2: Subkingdom Protozoa 83
  Subkingdom Algae 85
  Phylum Chlorophyta 86
  Phylum Chrysophyta 88
  Phylum Pyrophyta 89
  Phylum Phaeophyta 90
  Phylum Rhodophyta 92
  Experiment 3.3: Subkingdom Algae 93
  Summing Up Kingdom Protista 93
Module 4: Kingdom Fungi
  Introduction 99
  General Characteristics of Fungi 99
  Reproduction in Fungi 103
  Classification in Kingdom Fungi 104
  Phylum Amastigomycota 105
  Experiment 4.1: Class Basidiomycetes 110
  Experiment 4.2: Yeast and the Fermentation Process 113
  Phylum Mastigomycota 117
  Experiment 4.3: Molds and Mildews 117
  The Imperfect Fungi 118
  Optional Experiment 4.4: Imperfect Fungi 120
  Phylum Myxomycota 121
  Symbiosis in Kingdom Fungi 123
  Summing Up Kingdom Fungi 124
Module 5: The Chemistry of Life
  Introduction 129
  Atoms: The Basic Building Blocks of Matter 129
  Elements 132
  Molecules 134
  Changes in Matter 136
  Physical Change 137
 
Experiment 5.1: Osmosis and Diffusion 138
  Chemical Change 142
  Photosynthesis 144
  Organic Chemistry 146
  Experiment 5.2: The Fragility of an Enzyme 157
  DNA 159
Module 6: The Cell
  Introduction 167
  Cellular Functions 167
  Cell Structure 170
  Experiment 6.1: Cell Structure I 179
  How Substances Travel In and Out of Cells 181
  Experiment 6.2: Cell Structure II 186
  How Cells Produce Energy 187
  Protein Synthesis 192
Module 7: Cellular Reproduction
  Introduction 207
  Genes, Chromosomes, and DNA 208
  Experiment 7.1: DNA Extraction 210
  Mitosis: The Common Form of Asexual Reproduction 212
  Experiment 7.2: Mitosis 216
  Diploid Chromosomes 217
  Meiosis: The Cellular Basis of Sexual Reproduction 220
  Viruses 225
Module 8: Genetics
  Introduction 235
  Gregor Mendel 235
  Mendel's Experiments 236
  Updating the Terminology 242
  Punnett Squares 245
  Pedigrees 248
  More Complex Genetic Crosses 251
  Experiment 8.1: A Dihybrid Cross 256
  Sex and Sex-Linked Genetic Traits 257
  Experiment 8.2: Sex-Linked Genetic Traits 259
  Genetic Disorders and Diseases 260
  Experiment 8.3: The Environmental Factor 263
Module 9 : Evolution - Part Scientific Theory, Part Unconfirmed Hypothesis
  Introduction 273
  Charles Darwin 274
  Darwin's Theory .. 276
  Microevolution and Macroevolution 279
  Inconclusive Evidence: The Geological Column 282
  The Details of the Fossil Record: Evidence Against Macroevolution 286
  Structural Homology: Formerly Evidence for Macroevolution 292
  Molecular Biology: The Nail in Macroevolution's Coffin 294
  Macroevolution 299
  Why Do So Many Scientists Believe in Macroevolution? 302
Module 10 : Ecosystems
  Introduction 309
  Energy and Ecosystems 310
  Symbiosis 315
  The Physical Environment 320
  The Water Cycle 321
  The Oxygen Cycle 324
  The Carbon Cycle 326
  Experiment 10.1: Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effect 328
  Summing Up 333
Module 11 : The Invertebrates of Kingdom Animalia
  Introduction .. 339
  Symmetry 339
  Phylum Porifera: The Sponges 341
  Experiment 11.1: Observation of a Sponge From Genus Grantia 344
  Phylum 345
  Experiment 11.2: Observation of a Hydra 349
  Phylum Annelida 352
  Optional Dissection Experiment #1: The Earthworm 358
  Phylum Platyhelminthes 360
  Experiment 11.3: Observation of a Planarian 362
  Phylum Nematoda 363
  Phylum 364
  Summing Up The Invertebrates 366
Module 12 : Phylum Arthropoda
  Introduction 373
  General Characteristics of Arthropods 373
  Class Crustacea 376
  The Crayfish 376
  Optional Dissection Experiment #2: The Crayfish 384
  Class Arachnida 386
  Classes Chilopoda and Diplopoda 391
  Class Insecta 392
  A Few Orders in Class Insecta 396
  Experiment 12.1: Insect Classification 400
Module #13: Phylum Chordata
  Introduction 407
  Subphylum Urochordata 408
  Subphylum Cephalochordat.a 409
  Subphylum 410
  Class Agnatha 417
  Class Chondrichthyes 420
  Class Osteichthyes 424
  Optional Dissection Experiment #3: The Perch 431
  Class Amphibia 433
  Optional Dissection Experiment #4: The Frog 437
  Summing Up 437
  Experiment 13.1: Field Study II 438
Module #14: Kingdom Plantae: Anatomy and Classification
  Introduction 445
  Basic Plant Anatomy 445
  The Macroscopic Structure of a Leaf 447
  Experiment 14.1: Leaf Identification 450
  The Microscopic Structure of a Leaf 452
  Leaf Color 454
  Experiment 14.2: Anthocyanin and Leaf Color 455
  Roots 458
  Stems 461
  Experiment 14.3: Microscopic Investigations of Leaves and Stems 465
  Classification of Plants 466
  Phylum Bryophyta: The Non-Vascular Plants 467
  Vascular Plants 468
Module 15 : Kingdom Plantae: Physiology and Reproduction
  Introduction 477
  Plant Physiology 477
  How a Plant Depends on Water 477
  Water Absorption in Plants 479
  Water Transport in Plants 480
  Plant Growth 483
  Insectivorous Plants 486
  Reproduction in Plants 487
  Sexual Reproduction in Plants 489
  Experiment 15.1: Flower Anatomy 492
  The Reproductive Process in Plants . 493
  Seeds, Fruits, and Early Plant Development 499
  Experiment 15.2: Fruits 501
Module 16 : Reptiles, Birds, and Mammals
  Introduction 509
  Class Reptilia 509
  Classification of Reptiles .. 512
  Order Rhynchocephalia 513
  Order Squamata 514
  Order Testudines 517
  Order Crocodylia 518
  Dinosaurs 519
  Class Aves 521
  Experiment 16.1: Bird Embryology 523
  A Bird's Ability to Fly 524
  Classification of Reptiles .. 512
  Order Rhynchocephalia 513
  Order Squamata 514
  Order Testudines 517
  Order Crocodylia 518
  Dinosaurs 519
  Class Aves 521
  Experiment 16.1: Bird Embryology 523
  A Bird's Ability to Fly 524
  Classification in Class Aves 529
  Experiment 16.2: Bird Identification 532
  Class Mammalia 533
  Classification in class Mammalia 536
  Summing It All 542

  Glossary 547
  Appendix 563
  Index 569